0000006606 00000 n The dead upright stems do not carry fire well and the fine fuels are often lacking. Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla are both leaf-feeding chrysomelids. 0000001307 00000 n Taylor. 1999). The plant blossoms every July through September with purple flowers that are located in long spikes at the tip of its branches. Habitat Purple loosestrife grows in a variety of wet habitats, including wet meadows, marshes, river banks, and the edges of ponds and reservoirs. BioScience 43:680-686. Follow-up treatments are recommended for at least 3 years. Overtakes habitat and outcompetes native aquatic plants, potentially lowering diversity. N. marmoratus has also been released in Ohio (Ohio EPA 2001). Numerous studies demonstrate the aggressive and competitive nature of purple loosestrife. 0000022664 00000 n It's the North American equivalent of Himalayan Balsam in Britain. Purple loosestrife is a perennial invasive plant that was introduced to North America from Europe via seeds in ships’ ballast. Fun Facts. The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Chapter. and P.A. Now regulated in all Great Lakes states. Specialized marsh birds avoid nesting and foraging in purple loosestrife (Blossey et al. Purple loosestrife – including all cultivars – is a prohibited invasive species in Minnesota (MN Administrative Rules, 6216.0250 Prohibited). The larvae evidence is the zig-zag patterns in the root. The species has also been introduced to Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Purple loosestrife was determined to be the most common exotic species of the St. Lawrence River wetlands, appearing at more survey stations than any nonindigenous plant (although not at the highest densities) (Lui et al. McEvoy, P. Hammond, E.M. Coombs. (1998) also found that competition with L. salicaria could reduced the above-ground biomass of adjacent target species by over 80%, more than 6 other tested competitors, including T. augustifolia. 3 any Lythrum spp. Introduced in the early 1800s to North America via ship ballast, as a medicinal herb, and ornamental plant. . Purple loosestrife is a wetland perennial native to Eurasia that forms large, monotypic stands throughout the temperate regions of the U.S. and Canada. Such a shift in the density and number of species present in a marsh presents challenges to the animal species living in that marsh. A single known exception is cutting followed by flooding. This species has a major visual impact on the vegetation of EFMO, and it has the potential to invade and replace native communities endangering the areas' primary resources (Butterfield et al. Seed production is reduced by 60%. Table 1. Purple loosestrife has been declared a noxious weed in 32 states. 1 it is illegal to import, sell, offer for sale, or distribute the seeds or the plants of purple loosestrife in any form. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Mowing is generally not effective as it exposes the seed bank. The root system consists of a very thick and hard taproot, and spreading lateral roots. Biological control of purple loosestrife. Biological Invasions. 1993). However, L. salicaria appeared to have a lesser effect on plant diversity at colonized sites relative to grass exotics, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and common read (Phragmites australis) (Lui et al. Grout, J. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. Wetlands 18: 70-78. Lake Michigan Field Station, 1431 Beach St., Muskegon, MI 49441-1098 (231) 759-7824 Biological Invasions 7:427-444. Purple loosetrife is on the Control noxious weed list meaning you must prevent the spread of this plant. It has gradually spread throughout much of the United Stat… Additional releases occurred in New Jersey in 1996. A comparative approach to examine competitive response of 48 wetland plant species. Flack, S. & E. Furlow 1996. Gaudet and Keddy (1988) report declining biomass for 44 native wetland species in a laboratory setting with the establishment of L. salicaria. Should we care about purple loosestrife? † Populations may not be currently present. state centroids or Canadian provinces). Sometimes hairless, sometimes with short hairs that point upwards. %PDF-1.4 %���� Seeds are relatively long-lived, retaining 80% viability after 2-3 years of submergence (Malecki 1990). 55 pages. (click image to enlarge) Spring purple loosestrife and native wetland look-a-like stems from left: two-year-old plant, one-year-old plant, Steeplebush ( Spiraea tomentosa ), Swamp Loosestrife ( Decodon verticillatus ), Great Water Dock ( Rumex britannica ). 1998. The Osprey 22:67-77. The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 inches long, and mostly opposite or in whorls of 3 (which may appear alternately arranged). 0000003073 00000 n One purple Five species of beetles have been approved for the biocontrol of Lythrum salicaria (Blossey et al 1994ab). Foliar spray can be used by applying herbicide after the period of peak bloom, in late August. Habitat: Purple loosestrife was introduced from Europe but is now widely naturalized in wet meadows, river flood-plains, and damp roadsides throughout most of Ontario. However, despite growth reduction, target species survival was also highest in L. salicaria pots (Keddy et al. The most species specific way to apply herbicide is by cutting and treating the stems. Purple loosestrife begins spring growth about a week or 10 days after broadleaved cattails, so a fire of sufficient intensity to damage purple loosestrife could also damage desirable native species (IL DNR 2007). In the Great Lakes region, Sea Grant conducted an extensive, multi-state program involving youth in raising and releasing Galerucella beetles for control of purple loosestrife (Sea Grant 2001). 3. Sediment chemistry associated with native and non-native emergent macrophytes of a Hudson River marsh ecosystem. 2009). <<4EEE7EB42A479C48B1EA293A1956F231>]>> Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:705-721. Quick facts Purple loosestrife is a prohibited invasive species. As it establishes and expands, it outcompetes and replaces native grasses, sedges, and other flowering plants that provide a higher quality source of cover, food, or nesting sites for native wetland animals (U.S.EPA 2008). 0000079145 00000 n Evidence of Galerucella ssp. Habitat. 0000004490 00000 n Recent assessments demonstrate that the leaf-feeding beetle introductions have c… Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. 1997. Keddy, P.A., L. Twolan-Strutt, I.C. Smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium) is reported to out-compete purple loosestrife during its first year of growth. xref A. Perry. Purple loosestrife can spread within marsh systems to create monotypic stands. The first Great Lakes sighting was in Lake Ontario in 1869. Gabor, T.S., & H.R. Lavoie, C. 2010. Great Lakes region nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state/province, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Purple loosestrife: A botanical dilemma. 2. Competitive effect and response rankings in 20 wetland plants: are they consistent across three environments? 0000006833 00000 n can grow up to 2.5 m tall, forming colonies 1.5 m or more in width. With its striking flowers, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a beautiful menace in wetland habitats. LaFleur, A. 1996. European garden books mention the purple loosestrife all the way back to the Middle Ages. It is believed to have been first introduced into the U.S. from seed contained in ships ballast, and it became established in certain estuaries in the northeastern states by the early 1800s. 2 any nonnative member of the genus Lythrum or hybrid of the genus is prohibited from sale. The larvae feed constantly on the leaf underside, leaving only the thin cuticle layer on the top of the leaf. in fourteen Minnesota wetlands. The female crawls to the lower 2-3 inches of the stem then bores a hole to the pithy area of the stem where 1 -3 eggs are laid daily from July to September. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a herbaceous perennial that may grow up to 10 feet tall and 4 feet wide.Plants can reach maturity in 3 to 5 years, producing as many as 50 stems per plant. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:98-100. Hylobius transversovittatus is a root-mining weevil that also eats leaves. 2005). not native to North Carolina. Schooler, S.S., P.B. 0000014501 00000 n Dense growth along shoreland areas makes it difficult to access open water. Bayeriola salicariae, a gall midge, was studied and screened between 1990 and 1992 (Blossey and Schroeder, 1992). It varies in height from 4 - 10 feet. Established. 1940. The calyx and corolla are fused to form a floral tube (also called a hypanthium) that is cylindrical (4-6 mm long), greenish, and 8-12 nerved. Or, the female will dig through the soil to the root, and lay eggs in the soil near the root. Murkin 1990. 0000001387 00000 n 1996). 0000027634 00000 n Pull individual loosestrife plants by hand before seed is set . 927.682), though the director may exempt varieties ‘demonstrated not to be a threat to the environment’. 0000003582 00000 n trailer Purple loosestrife has low nutrient requirements and can withstand nutrient-poor sites. Invasive species cause recreational, economic and ecological damage—changing how residents and visitors use and enjoy Minnesota waters.Purple loosestrife impacts: 1. Keddy et al. For small infestations and isolated plants, hand pulling may be effective. Additionally, species richness in wetland moth populations has been shown to be negatively correlated with purple loosestrife cover (Schooler et al. Its 50 stems are four-angled and glabrous to pubescent. Nanophyes marmoratus and N. brevis are seed eating beetles. Purple loosestrife can invade many wetland types including wet meadows, stream banks, pond or lake edges and ditches. This species was introduced to North America in the early 1800s where it first appeared in ballast heaps of eastern harbors (Stuckey 1980). Any control method should be followed up on a yearly basis to catch any missed plants or new sprouts. Hight, D. Schroeder, L.T. 0000009449 00000 n Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family (Lythraceae) that develops a strong taproot, and may have up to 50 stems arising from its base. %%EOF 1996). visibly impacted purple loosestrife stands (Washington.gov 2012). Thompson, C.G. Wisheu. 1996. Decomposition rates and phosphorus concentrations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and cattail (Typha spp.) Interesting Purple loosestrife Facts: Purple loosestrife produces several, reddish-purple stems that can reach 4 to 7 feet in height. Provides unsuitable shelter, food, and nesting habitat for native animals. This infection appeared benign for N. brevis, however, due to the potential for non-target effects of the nematode after introduction into North America, only disease free specimens should be introduced, which, at present, effectively precludes the introduction of N. brevis (Blossey 2002). 0000001016 00000 n Each inflorescence is spike-like (1-4 cm long), and each plant may have numerous inflorescences. (Ohio EPA 2001). Typically the calyx lobes are narrow and thread-like, six in number, and less than half the length of the petals. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report (1939):375-391. Purple loosestrife seeds are mostly dispersed by water, but wind and mud adhering to wildlife, livestock, vehicle tires, boats, and people serve also as agent. 0000003836 00000 n (2008) Predicting future introductions of nonindigenous species to the Great Lakes. Facts. According to the U.S. Plants are usually covered by a downy pubescence. Sixty to one hundred eggs are laid in the immature flower bud. Weaver 1996. It has a branched stem bearing whorls of narrow, pointed, stalkless leaves and ending in tall,… Pennsylvania has designated all nonnative Lythrum species and their cultivars as noxious weeds (7 PA Code 110.1). 4 including all cultivars. The federally endangered bog turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergi Schoepff) loses basking and breeding sites to encroachment of purple loosestrife (Malecki et al. Each stem is four- to six-sided. Originally many garden varieties of … Identification: Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family (Lythraceae) that develops a strong taproot, and may have up to 50 stems arising from its base. damage are round holes in the leaves. U.S. Purple Loosestrife may be distinguished from other species of Lythrum by its stems that end in dense, showy flower spikes. The pollen and nectar that purple loosestrife possess makes delicious honey. Where did purple loosestrife come from? 2005). Barlocher, F. and N. R. Biddiscombe. Fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata), foxtail sedge (Carex alopecoidea), and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) have achieved dominance and prevented re-invasion in plots where purple loosestrife was experimentally removed. 0000006230 00000 n In states where it is permitted, purple loosestrife continues to be promoted by horticulturists for its beauty as a landscape plant and for bee-forage. Twelve stamens are typical for each flower. Purple loosestrife: Survey and biological control. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lythrum salicaria are found here. Flowering occurs 8-10 weeks after initial spring growth. A., C. D. Levings, and J. S. Richardson. Current research on the benefits of Lythrum salicaria in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment. * HUCs are not listed for areas where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. The fruit is a capsule about 2 mm in diameter and 3-4 mm long with many small, ovoid dust-like seeds (< 1 mm long) (USDA plants database 2008). 1988. Note: Check state/provincial and local regulations for the most up-to-date information regarding permits for control methods. The entire root system must be removed, but do not dig out roots because soil disturbance may release seeds buried in the soil and break off plant parts, which then reproduce. It prefers moist, highly organic soils but can tolerate a wide range of conditions. Thompson, Daniel Q., Ronald L. Stuckey, Edith B. Thompson. 0000000016 00000 n Revegetation of disturbed riparian sites can be used to prevent purple loosestrife establishment and to reduce re-establishment after control procedures are applied. 0000005194 00000 n The flowering parts are used as medicine. Blazing Star, Gay Feather ( Liatris spp.) Trebitz, A.S. and D.L. Fraser, I.C. 0000011049 00000 n Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, is native to Europe. Cornell University Non-indigenous Plant Species Program, http://www.invasiveplants.net GLIFWC-Maps Jil M. Swearingen, National Park Service, Washington, DC. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. Areas dominated by purple loosestrife (Fig. Heidorn, R., & B. Anderson 1991.Vegetation management guideline: purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.). Loosestrife plants grow from four … 1987; Mal et al. It was introduced into North America through ship ballast and as an ornamental. Physical Most mechanical and cultural attempts to control purple loosestrife are ineffective. 0000002879 00000 n Dense root systems change the hydrology of wetlands. Templer, P., S. Findlay, and C. Wigand. Plants grow flowering spikes of blue, ... Delphinium ( Delphinium spp.) Its leaves are opposite or whorled on a square, sometimes woody stem. 0000002374 00000 n It was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s for ornamental and medicinal purposes. Prescribed burning is not an effective management tool for purple loosestrife. Planting, sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana (312 IAC 14-24-12). 9 pp Emery, S. L. and J. This beetle eats from the leaf margins, working inward. Natural Areas Journal 11: 172-173. Purple loosestrife is an invasive wetland perennial from Europe and Asia. 0000010249 00000 n Keddy, P., L.H. It has a vigorous rootstock that serves as a storage organ, providing resources for growth in spring and regrowth if the plant has been damaged from cuttings. 1995 Summary Report, USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS). 0000001797 00000 n Individual plants may have flowers of three different types classified according to stylar length as short, medium, and long. Nature 334:242-243. Flooding is generally ineffective at controlling purple loosestrife, though some success has been reported for control of seedlings when using flooding regimes in excess 30cm for over 7 weeks (Balogh 1985). Fish and Wildlife Service. Lui, K., F.L. Frequent cutting of the stems at ground level is effective but must be continued for several years. Purple loosestrife has evolved to tolerate the shorter growing seasons and colder weather of the central and northern parts of the province. A bumblebee visits an invasive purple loosestrife plant growing along the shoreline of Havre de Grace, Md., on July 25, 2016. Malecki, R.A., B. Blossey, S.D. Triclopyr and glyphosate are used most commonly. Thompson et al. 0000007066 00000 n Ellis, D.R. No. Thus broadleaf-specific herbicides which do not harm monocot species (such as common wetland grasses and sedges) are preferred. Purple loosestrife is a wetland plant, growing in freshwater wet meadows, tidal and non-tidal marshes, river and stream banks, pond edges, reservoirs, and ditches. 2005. Purple loosestrife adapts readily to natural and disturbed wetlands. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/plants/loosstrf/index.htm (Version 04JUN1999). 4 or 6 sided. Is my garden variety (cultivar) of Purple Loosestrife safe? It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, and is particularly associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes, bogs and watersides. 1994) found purple loosestrife to be among the most competitive, causing an average yield reduction of 60% in its neighbors across different habitats. Purple loosestrife can be identified by its oppositely arranged, Wisheu. Release of N. brevis planned for 1994 was delayed due to contamination of the original shipment with a parasitic nematode (Piper, 1997). Stem: Erect. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:777-786. Keddy. 0000001566 00000 n 0000075132 00000 n National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-08/066F. This plant has the ability to produce as many as two million seeds in a growing season. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & Louisiana State University-Plant Biology. Predicting competitive ability from plant traits: a comparative approach. Purple loosestrife is designated both as a restricted species (NR40.05: Restricted) and as an invasive aquatic plant (NR 109.07 (2)) in Wisconsin. This highly invasive plant was likely introduced when its seeds were included in soil used as ballast in European sailing ships and discarded in North America. Alternative plantings for the Purple Loosestrife. It has been used as an astringent medicinal herb to treat diarrhea and dysentery; it is considered safe to use for all ages, including babies. 55 0 obj<>stream Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb that usually grows two to six feet tall. At the state level, it has been classified as noxious and has a highly invasive status and wetland indicator values. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), native to Eurasia and now common in eastern North America, grows 0.6 to 1.8 metres (2 to 6 feet) high on riverbanks and in ditches. H. transversovittatus damage is done when xylem and phloem tissue are severed, and the carbohydrate reserves in the root are depleted. 0000003107 00000 n It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The invasion of L. salicaria alters biogeochemical and hydrological processes in wetlands. Follow all label instructions. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, and http://www.epa.gov/ncea. Many tall stems can grow from a … Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family, with a square, woody stem and opposite or whorled leaves. The showy corolla (up to 2 cm across) is rose-purple and consists of five to seven petals. Mann, H. 1991. These beetles defoliate and attack the terminal bud area, drastically reducing seed production. Geratology and decomposition of. 1998). 1994. 1998). Purple loosestrife causes annual wetland losses of about 190,000 hectares in the United States (Thompson et al. endstream endobj 21 0 obj<> endobj 22 0 obj<> endobj 23 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 25 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj<> endobj 27 0 obj[/ICCBased 47 0 R] endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<> endobj 30 0 obj<> endobj 31 0 obj<> endobj 32 0 obj<>stream Because of its ability form dense homogeneous stands and reduce waterfowl habitat, it is perceived as a species which is dominating and inhibitive to duck hunting. The mature plant stands about 6-7' high and 4' wide. While some avian fauna, such as the swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), have successfully utilized purple-loosestrife dominated habitat around Lake Huron, overall avian diversity in these sites is much lower compared to other wetland habitats (Whitt et al. Eckert. Its average height is 5 feet. 0000003326 00000 n Estuaries 20: 96-102. Purple loosestrife leaves decompose quickly in the fall resulting in a nutrient flush, whereas leaves of native species decompose in the spring (Barlocher and Biddiscombe 1996; Emery and Perry 1996; Grout et al. Planting or sale of the species without a permit is prohibited in Ohio (O.R.C. ' Decomposition rates of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and Lyngbyei’s sedge (Carex lyngbyei) in the Fraser River Estuary. (Courtney 1997). Each flower is made up of 5-7 petals, each 7 … Gaudet, C.L. Purple loosestrife affects natural areas by changing wetland physical structure, plant species composition, and even water chemistry. 1987. 1996. Purple Loosestrife Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb standing 3 to 10 feet tall. Realized: Since the 1980s, purple loosestrife has received an increasing amount of attention from the media nationally, almost always in a negative light (Lavoie, 2010). 2009. The flower is famous as a good anti oxidant source. http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/lysa1.htm Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center http://npdc.usda.gov, USGS - Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin, Virginia Natural Heritage Program, http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/invinfo.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_loosestrife, GLERL 4840 S. State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48108-9719 (734) 741-2235 0000007836 00000 n A mature plant can develop into a large clump of stems up to five feet in diameter. Fernald, M.L. This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. Current research on the socio-economic impact of Lythrum salicaria in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment. Bulletin of Entomological Research. By 1996 populations of Galerucella ssp. Lythrum salicaria, commonly called purple loosestrife, is a clump-forming wetland perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. Journal of Ecology 82(3):635-643. Eurasia; extends from Great Britain to central Russia from near the 65th parallel to North Africa; Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and northern India, and the northern Himalayan region. Causes and consequences of extreme variation in reproductive strategy and vegetative growth among invasive populations of a clonal aquatic plant, Butomus umbellatus L. (Butomaceae). Some leaf bases are heart-shaped and may clasp the main stem. (1987) estimated that on average, a mature plant produces about 2,700,000 seeds annually. Purple loosestrife; Spiked loosestrife; Salicaire; Bouquet violet; Rainbow weed. At the Effigy Mounds National Monument (EFMO), combined populations of purple loosestrife cover an area of 5 to 10 hectares growing in regularly disturbed sites. NOAA | DOC. Its 50 stems are four-angled and glabrous to pubescent. Fish and Wildlife Service, purple loosestrife now occurs in every state except Florida. & J.S. 1997). 1998. Seeding Japanese millet (Echinocloa frumentacea, also called billion-dollar grass) at 30 pounds/acre on exposed moist soil after drawdown and before purple loosestrife seedlings began to grow provided control. 0000004648 00000 n Among twenty tested wetland plants, (Keddy et al. Fernald (1940) reported a loss of native plant diversity in the St. Lawrence River floodplain following the invasion of purple loosestrife and the exotic flowering rush, Butomus umbellatus. Japanese millet is considered an exceptional wildlife plant (Jacobs 2008). However, no quantitative studies are known to have measured the societal perception of purple loosestrife. Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple loosestrife basically began naturalizing on its own in rural areas. Spread, Impact, and Control of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American Wetlands. It was probably introduced to the Great Lakes region via canals. A very aggressive invader of sunny wetlands, purple loosestrife displaces native species and reduces plant and animal diversity. 20 0 obj <> endobj The larvae then work their way to the root. 1997). There were two test sites releases in 1996. 4. The history of an invasive plant in North America. This change in timing of nutrient release at a time of little primary production results in significant alterations of wetland function and could jeopardize detritivore consumer communities adapted to decomposition of plant tissues in spring (Grout et al. The highly invasive nature of purple loosestrife allows it to form dense, homogeneous stands that restrict native wetland plant species, including some federally endangered orchids, and reduce habitat for waterfowl. 0000011832 00000 n 1997). Plant size is greatly reduced because of these depleted energy reserves in the root. Anti Oxidant. The mortality rate to purple loosestrife seedlings is high. Nature Conservancy Magazine 46(6) November/December. ;*�xX�Q����� `�BJ�JG�jXF� �e`��X,���Ϩ�,"�C�@ȍi�Ǹ�a� ��&�r�=Lk�Y�,�6�3�c����Ӥ1�_�-]�n���0��30��L@l �������w � /� The short-styled type has long and medium length stamens, the medium type has long and short stamens, and the long-styled has medium to short stamens. Leaves are lance-shaped, stalkless, and heart-shaped or rounded at the base. All plant parts should be bagged to prevent dispersal or resprouting and preferably burned. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Invasive Species - (Lythrum salicaria) Restricted in Michigan Purple Loosestrife is a perennial herb with a woody square stem covered in downy hair.
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